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[1]United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner

[1]Paullin, Charles O, Edited by John K. Wright (1932). Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States. New York, New York and Washington, D.C.:: Carnegie Institution of Washington and American Geographical Society. pp. Plate 42.

*Swindler, William F., Editor (1973–1979). Sources and Documents of United States Constitutions.' 10 Volumes. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications. pp. Vol. 10: 17–23.

*Van Zandt, Franklin K. (1976). Boundaries of the United States and the Several States; Geological Survey Professional Paper 909. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 92.

*How Virginia Got Its Boundaries, by Karl R Phillips

*Andrews, Charles M. (1924). The Colonial Background of the American Revolution. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 32–34.

[1]Hatch, Charles (1956). America's Oldest Legislative Assembly & Its Jamestown Statehouses, Appendix II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service.

 *Bosher, Kate (1907). "The First House of Burgesses". The North American Review. 184 (612): 733–39.

[1]Bean, Philip, and Meville, Joy. Lost Children of the Empire: The Untold Story of Britain's Child Migrants. London: Unwin Hyman Limited, 1989. Print. 37.

[1]Ibid., pg. 38-39

[1]Ibid., pg. 4

[1]Ibid., pgs. 4 -8, 11, 16, 18, 38-39

[1]Humphreys, Margaret. Empty Cradles: One Woman's Fight to Uncover Britain's Most Shameful Secret. London: Transworld Publishers LTD, 1994. Print. pg. 43

[1]Humphreys, pg. 57

[1]Ibid., Introduction

[1]Ibid., pgs. 41, 44, 56

[1]Indigenous Foundations Arts UBC Canada. The University of British Columbia. Copyright 2009. First Nations and Indigenous Studies.

[1]Philp, Margaret (2002). "The Land of Lost Children," The Globe and Mail, Saturday, December 21, 2002, & Crey, Ernie, & Fournier, Suzanne (1998). Stolen From Our Embrace. The Abduction of First Nations Children and the Restoration of Aboriginal Communities. D&M Publishers Inc.


[1]Suche Kind, Zahle Bar – Die Adoptions lobby by Golineh Atai, a German journalist, 2009.

[1]Schuler, Thomas. "Child Wanted, Cash Paid." The Atlantic Times, 2010.


[1]Schuler, Thomas. "Child Wanted, Cash Paid.' The Shady World of Adoption." The Atlantic Times March 2010. Theodora Bertzi said in 2006 that this number was "not exaggerated."

[1]This article, “Adoption Under Fire,” was first published in Dutch in November of 2008, in Justitiële verkenningen

[1]Post, Roelie. Romania: For Export Only. St. Anna Parochie, Netherlands: Hoekstra, 2007. Print.

8, 2015 Posted September. "The EU’s u-turn on children's rights: a pro-adoption biased interpretation of key international instruments." Against Child Trafficking. N.p., 08 Sept. 2015.

"Article 21 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Adoption." Article 21 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Adoption | Pound Pup Legacy. N.p., n.d. Web.

[1]The U.S. Department of State Archive. Office of the Spokesman. Washington, DC. December 12, 2007. "United States Ratifies the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption."

[1]Against Child Trafficking. "JCICS, US Adoption Trade Organisation Closure Confirmed!" Outgoing message from the JCICS. Wednesday, 24 June 2015. Board Chair, Brian Franklin.


David M. Smolin. "Child Laundering As Exploitation: Applying Anti-Trafficking Norms to Intercountry Adoption Under the Coming Hague Regime" ExpressO (2007) Available at:

ABC News, Heroic Young Girl Tells of Her Child Porn Ordeal, Dec. 1, 2005, available at:’1364110

David Conti, Child Abuse ‘monster’ gets 35-70 years, Pittsburgh Tribune Review, November 18, 2005, available at

[1]Reverend Jim Jones, cult leader and adoptive father best known for spearheading the Jonestown Massacres (also known for shaming and guilting his congregation into adopting), depended upon his followers to "stay positive" in their new home in Guyana, South America. This zealous attitude of avoidance regarding blatant abuse eventually led "his people" to their deaths. In a forthcoming book, I incorporate FBI transcripts of the reverend and his wife at the time of receiving two Korean-born children during a televised church event. Later on, both children died: one in a car accident soon after obtainment; and the other during the Jonestown massacre. I also include a telephone transcript of the third Korean-born adoptee's conversation with Reverend Jim Jones' wife (the children's adoptive mother) reflecting the young woman's opinion on her adoption placement with this infamous couple who flaunted images of themselves as a "rainbow family."

[1]Brace, Charles Loring. "The Life of Charles Loring Brace: Chiefly told in his own Letters." New York: C. Scribners Sons. 1894.$44i

[1]Brace, Charles Loring. The life of Charles Loring Brace: chiefly told in his own letters. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1894. CHAPTER VI page 157 - 158 (seq. 172) Collection Development Department, Widener Library, HCL Harvard University 09 April 2016

[1]Brace, Charles Loring. The life of Charles Loring Brace: chiefly told in his own letters. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1894. CHAPTER VI page 157 - 158 (seq. 172) Collection Development Department, Widener Library, HCL Harvard University 09 April 2016

[1]"American Experience." American Experience. The Orphan Trains Transcript | PBS. N.p., n.d.

[1]Harvard pg. 159

[1]Stephen O'Conner Orphan Trains: The Story of Charles Loring Brace and the Children He Saved and Failed. Houghton Mifflin Company. New York. 2001 Introduction

[1] (97 charities placed out) "Orphan train riders, offspring seek answers about heritage" USA Today

[1]Coffey, Marilyn June. Mail-Order Kid: An Orphan Train Rider's Story, Nebraska: "out West" Press, 2001. Introduction: xix

[1]Dianne Creagh, "The Baby Trains: Catholic Foster Care and Western Migration, 1873-1929," Journal of Social History (2012) 46#1 pp 197-218

"Orphan Trains The Story of Charles Loring Brace and the Children He Saved and Failed." The New York Times. The New York Times, n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. <>.

[1]Ibid., pgs. 17 - 20

[1]Ibid., pg. 17

[1]Coffey, Marilyn June. Mail-Order Kid: An Orphan Train Rider's Story, Nebraska: "out West" Press, 2001. Print. pg. 34

[1]Ibid., pgs. 197 -199

[1]Brennan, Emily. "New York Adoptees Fight for Access to Birth Certificates." The New York Times. June 15, 2014.


[1]Raymond, Barbara Bisantz. The Baby Thief: The Untold Story of Georgia Tann, the Baby Seller Who Corrupted Adoption. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, 2007. Print. pg. 46

[1]Ibid., pgs. 47 - 48

[1]"Welcome House: A Historical Perspective". Pearl S. Buck International. Retrieved 2015-04-06.

[1]Raymond pg. 101

[1]Ibid., pgs. 109 -110, 115

[1]According to the Economic and Social Affairs from the United Nations report on Child Adoptions: Trends and Policies (2009), all nations except for twelve, allow for single men to adopt. Adult intercountry adoptees who are aware of this, find it shocking that overseas adoptions are considered better protection for children or deemed in the child's best interest over the idea for these children staying in their own homes and their own communities.

[1]Raymond pg. 101

[1]Ibid., pg. 139

[1]Ibid., pg. 118

[1]Ibid., pgs. 102 – 108. 118, 139

[1]Browning, Maria. "She Terrified People: Finally, a book tells the story of Tennessee's infamous baby seller." July 17, 2008. Nashville Scene.

Note on The Baby Thief: On adoptee forums, a few US-born domestic adoptees voiced being bothered that the book was written by an adoptive parent who vied for closed adoption records and was "as vengeful as Tann was." They were bothered that adopters are, "hogging all the attention." The Baby Thief was made into a television movie, called Stolen Babies, starring Mary Tyler Moore.

[1]D'Arcy, Claudia Corrigan. "Interviewing with Dan Rather Reports." Musings of the Lame, April 8, 2012.

[1]Joyce, Katherine. The Child Catchers: Rescue, Trafficking and the New Gospel of Adoption. PublicAffairsTM. New York. 2013. pg. 100

[1]"More than six million American mothers surrendered children for adoption. In the wake of Oregon’s decision to open records, society has a renewed interest in these heretofore invisible women. America has been unwilling to look behind the scenes at adoption practices. After all, adoption is so sacred that it was enshrined on a postage stamp. Myths surround these mothers, who are either cast as sacrificial heroines or vilified as unnatural women who abandoned babies. Society believes that these mothers willingly gave up their babies and that they want privacy from their adult children. Fact is, these women long for contact and were never promised privacy.

It is important to hear this story so you understand that these women were pressured on all sides into surrendering their children and that in many cases their human rights were violated. I know this story because it is my story and the story of many others like me." "When a mother loses her child to closed adoption, it feels as if her child has died, yet there is no wake, no funeral, no sympathy cards, no public acknowledgment. There are no friends or relatives to offer comfort and support. There is no obituary, no grave to visit, no flowers to bring, no grieving permitted, and no closure." "The Baby Scoop Era (BSE) "Adoption History – Setting the Record Straight" by Karen Wilson Buterbaugh first published in Moxie Magazine, April 6, 2001.

[1]Professor Elizabeth J. Samuels from the Baltimore School of Law

[1]Raymond (104)

[1]Samuels, Elizabeth J., How Adoption in America Grew Secret; Birth Records Weren't Closed for the Reasons You Might Think (October 21, 2001). Washington Post, p. B.05, Sunday, October 21, 2001. Available at SSRN:

[1]Andrews, Valerie. "Language of Adoption" in the category of Adoption Practices. Origins, Canada. “Birthmothers” are a contemporary construction. In fact, “birthmothers” did not exist before the 1970s. The term “birthmother” was devised by adoption professionals to reduce a woman to a biological function. This term marginalizes mothers and creates a role for them in society that does not allow them to fully embrace their lived experience as a mother. The term also implies that the bond of mother and child within adoption ends at birth. The earliest recorded use of the terms “birthmother” and “birth parents” are in articles written by adoptive parent Pearl S. Buck in 1955, 1956, and 1972. They were further used in articles published between 1974 and 1976 by adoption workers Annette Baran and Reuben Pannor and social work professor Arthur Sorosky (Origins Canada, 2011)." Andrews also includes two pertinent quotes: “Language is very powerful. Language does not just describe reality. Language creates the reality it describes.” from Desmond Tutu and "Language can be discriminatory when we fail to consider the assumptions which inform the words we use. It expresses cultural norms and belief systems which are often so entrenched in language as to appear ‘normal’, or ‘true’. “Watch your Language”, University of Melbourne "Adoption Statistics". The Adoption History Project. The University of Oregon. Retrieved 17 October 2014.

[1]Once Removed: Voices from Inside the Adoption Triangle, Redmond, Sleightholm 1982.

[1]Adoption Wisdom, by Marlou Russell, Ph.D.


viii & ix: introduction. "many involving children she had kidnapped."

[1]"Because those of us in a crisis pregnancy are faced with stress, fear and loss, we’re naturally prone to denial. That’s one thing that makes thinking clearly about adoption so tricky. Another is that it’s very hard to accurately imagine what adoption will be like. You really don’t know until you’ve done it—and in many states, once you give your right to parent to someone else, there is no turning back. We at Concerned United Birthparents feel it’s the duty of every birthparent to share what we wish we had known when we were considering adoption. The words that follow are not intended to be anti-adoption. The fact is that adoption might well be the best plan for you and your child—but in order to be a truly good thing, it needs to be a well-considered decision, made at least twice—once before the birth, once after. Your decision will not be fully informed unless you hear the negative aspects of adoption as well as the positive. Following are the most common regrets birthparents have voiced." 1) I wish I had known that family preservation should come first. 2) I wish I had known the extent to which adopted children deal with issues of abandonment. 3) I wish I had known that I wasn’t carrying my child for someone else and that it wasn’t my responsibility to help the infertile couples of the world. 4) I wish I had known that society dislikes and fears birthparents. 5) “I wish I had known the ways in which agency adoptions may be safer than private adoptions. 6) I wish I had known that professionals who say they are there to help you are in actuality serving the real client, the prospective adoptive parent. 7) “I wish I had known that numerous internet resources exist for birthmothers and women in crisis pregnancies to find each other and talk. 8) “I wish I had known the difference between truly open adoption and a semi-open one. 9. “I wish I had known that in most states, open adoption agreements are not legally enforceable. “I wish I had known there was no need to rush my decision; that it could have waited until after the birth.” 11) “I wish I had known how much I was going to love my child.” 12) “I wish I had known that the pain of adoption never goes away.” 13) “I wish I had known that the effects of adoption are so far-reaching. 14) “I wish I had known that in putting my baby first, I didn’t have to put myself last." Ganz, Sheila. "Unlocking the Heart of Adoption: Bridging the gap between birth and adoptive families." San Francisco, CA. 2015. For a brochure on the aforementioned list, go to: at

[1]Nemy, Enid. "Adopted Children Who Wonder, 'What Was Mother Like?' The New York Times, July 25, 1972.

[1] Dusky, “Yearning,” The New York Times, March 1, 1975.

[1] Dusky, “A Natural Mother Speaks Out on Adoptees’ Right to Know,” Town & Country, October 1976.

[1] Assembly: Sealed Adoption Records and Identity, April 28, 1976. Retrieved:

[1] Wayne Carp, Family Matters, Secrecy and Disclosure in the History of Adoption (Cambridge, MA, and London, 1998), p. 205.

[1] Carp, pps. 179-180.

[1] Carp, p. 185.

[1] Judy Klemesrud, “Mothers Find the Children They Gave Up,” The New York Times, August 29, 1983, B 5.

[1]DeMeyer, Trace. One Small Sacrifice: Lost Children of the Indian Adoption Projects. Blue Hand Books, Greenfield, Massachusetts. 2010/2012. Second Edition. (Out of Print. Author, now known as Trace Lara Hentz).

[1]pg. 64 -65

[1]Riben, Mirah. "The Insensitivity of Adoption Day Celebrations." Huffington Post. 5.06.15 Hicks, Patrick. 'Gotcha Day,' Meeting Your Adopted Child.' Huffington Post.4.27.15.

Riben, Mirah. "Adoptees and the Original Parents Speak Out About National Adoption Awareness Month (NAAM) Huffington Post. 10.29.16

[1]Jacobs, Margeret. A Generation Removed (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2014).

*Bureau of Indian Affairs Press Release, March 14, 1966.

Palmiste, Claire. “From the Indian Adoption Project to the Indian Child Welfare Act: the resistance of Native American communities,” Indigenous Policy Journal Vol. XXII, No. 1 (Summer 2011)

*A minimum of 25 percent of all Indian children are either in foster homes, adoptive homes, and or boarding schools. Senator James Abourezk, 1977 Senate Hearing.

Joyce, Kathryn. "The Adoption Crunch, The Christian Right, and the Challenge to Indian Sovereignty." Political Research Associates. February 23, 2014.

[1]Gibbs, Nancy & Duffy, Michael. The Preacher and the Presidents: Billy Graham in the White House. New York: Center Street, 2007. pg. 22

[1]Ibid., pg. 15

[1]Ibid., pg. 16

[1]Ibid., pg. 11

[1]Gibbs, Nancy & Duffy, Michael. The Preacher and the Presidents: Billy Graham in the White House. New York: Center Street, 2007.

[1]Billy Graham Evangelical Association Billy Media Resources and Press Kit. The website offers a list of archived television sermons.

[1]Statement from my adoptive father, a former choir director, Sunday school teacher, youth group leader, Boy Scout leader, and ruling elder and fan of Billy Graham.

[1]"BGEA History." Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <>.

[1]Media website Resource page from Billy Graham's news. "Timeline of Historic Events." Gives a listing of significant crusades, rallies, broadcasts, and expansion from 1947 to 2013. *

[1] Gillenson, Lewis W. Billy Graham and Seven Who Were Saved. New York: Trident Press, 1967. Pg. 8

[1]"For one more revival, rise up Korean churches, remembering Billy Graham in Korea 1970s." Retrieved June 2016.

[1]Pollock, John. The Billy Graham Story: Revised and Updated Edition of To All the Nations by Rev. Dr. John Charles Pollock. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, Nov. 16, 2003. Pg. 122. Print.

[1]"1973, Billy Graham," uploaded by cmimediaus. Retrieved June 2016.

[1]Pollock, John. The Billy Graham Story: Revised and Updated Edition of To All the Nations by Rev. Dr. John Charles Pollock. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, Nov. 16, 2003. Pg. 122. Print.

[1]June 3, 1973: Billy Graham Preaches to 1.1 million in Korea - The Billy Graham Library Blog." The Billy Graham Library. N.p., 02 Mar. 2016. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <>.

[1]The Seattle Times. "Billy Graham To Visit Seattle And Tacoma." Saturday, October 13, 1990.

United Press International "Billy Graham Begins Weeklong Crusade." May 15, 1983.

[1]Graham, Ruth "So You Want to Adopt" The 700 Club c/o Christian Broadcasting Network.

[1]"Ruth Graham: When Your Daughter Says 'I'm Pregnant.'" Christian Broadcasting Network. Retrieved 2016.

[1]Yi Sun-ae, Peurancheseuka Ri Seutori (Seoul: Raendeom Hauseu Jungang, 2005).

[1]In February 1933, Rhee met Austrian Franziska Donner in Geneva. At the time, Rhee was participating in a League of Nations meeting and Donner was working as an interpreter. In October 1934, they were married in New York City. She also acted as his secretary. They adopted a boy, Rhee In-soo Yi In-su or 이인수 - (b. September 1, 1931). In 1960, the 84-year-old Rhee won his fourth term in office as President with 90% of the vote. His presidency ended in resignation following popular protests against a disputed election. On April 28, 1960, a DC-4 belonging to the United States Central Intelligence Agency and operated by Civil Air Transport, covertly flew Rhee out of South Korea. The former president, his Austrian-born wife Franziska Donner, and adopted son then lived in exile in Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S. On July 19, 1965, Rhee died of a stroke at the age of 90.

프란체스카 [Francesca]. Encyclopedia of Korean culture (in Korean). Academy of Korean studies. [李承晩] [Rhee Syngman]. Doopedia (in Korean). Doosan Corporation. Retrieved March 12, 2014.

[1]Bishop, Bill. The Register-Guard. June 1984.,4781019&hl=en


[1]This couple happened to be married first cousins. Baker, Mark. "Children Changing Lives." The Register-Guard. 2006. Gale Group, a Thomson Corporation Company.

[1]Holt, Bertha. Bring My Sons From Afar: The Unfolding of Harry Holt's Dream. Eugene: Holt International Children's Services, 1986. Print. (13)

[1]World Vision, Inc. "Dead Men On Furlough 1954 with Bob Pierce." Uploaded by World Vision Video Department. (2012)

[1]Holt pg. 11 -12

[1]Holt pg. 16

[1]Holt pgs. 27, 81, 102

[1]Dodds, Peter F. (2015) "The Parallels between International Adoption and Slavery," Sociology Between the Gaps: Forgotten and Neglected Topics: Vol. 1, Article

10. Available at:

[1]Joyce, Kathryn. "Orphan Fever: The Evangelical Movement Adoption Obsession: When devout Christian families made it their mission to save children from war-torn countries, the match was often far from heavenly." Mother Jones. May/June 2013

[1]Kim, Dr. David Hyungbok. Who Will Answer... Eugene. Holt International. 2006 pg. 122

[1]Nehrbass, Daniel Ph. D., President of Nightlight Christian Adoptions. "Adoption PREVENTS Trafficking." &

[1]Kim, Dr. David Hyungbok. Who Will Answer... Eugene. Holt International. 2006 pg. 254

[1]The New York Times. "Harry Holt, Who Found Parents For 3,000 Korean Orphans, Dies; Oregon farmer is Stricken at 59 Near Seoul on New Adoption' Trip." April 29, 1964.

[1]Kim pgs. 102, 106, 108, 122, 199, 200, 254, 217, 370, 371

[1]San Diego State University. Department of Religious Studies. "Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple" at Jonestown Institute. Q415 Summary prepared by Fielding M. McGehee III. Audio of Reverend Jim and Marceline Jones' obtainment of Lew Eric and Stephanie

Audio of Reverend Jim and Marceline Jones' obtainment of Lew Eric and Stephanie Jones I checked with Korean organizations regarding the comment that lepers from South Korea searched for and ate children so that the lepers could "grow back their limbs," an accusation made by the television host later on in the recording, which motivated westerners to apply for children. This is one of many lies made against the Koreans that added to the defamation of their character, justifying the evangelical child market for intercountry adoption. ADDITIONAL NOTE: In the 1950s, just after the Korean War, the natives were left with the impression that the orphanages served as child welfare stations (or hospital or sanctuary), which would provide temporary care until they could get back on their feet (or get their finances in order). This trust is the reason many of the children were "abandoned" there. Today, Korean adoptees are discovering that their families had gone back to request for their children, unprepared for the permanent separation. They found that the children had already been sent overseas for intercountry adoption without any notification whatsoever. Staff members never considered inviting families inside the facilities (or to provide resources to keep families intact). The citizens were led to believe that the foreign charities could only care for children. Due to poverty and disempowerment, the parents did not have the audacity to ask if they, too, could receive assistance.

[1]Dan Rather's 2014 program on AXS TV, "Unwanted in America: The Shameful Side of International Adoption. Commentary can be found from Mirah Riben at Huffington Post:

[1]And pertinent comments on the forum. A favorite by an adoptee: “Acts of benevolence by the color-blind privileged add yet another layer of violence to the personhood of vulnerable little people, compounding their losses. The redistribution of children of color is rooted in the marginalization of ethnic groups and the propensity to make fetish objects of their children. It is no charity to exploit a time of tragedy – or any time – to take a nation’s most valuable resource for personal gain. It is a sad statement when those that capitalize on tragedy pat themselves on the back for their charity. The truly charitable would offer to help victims to help themselves. This feeding frenzy we are witnessing today by would-be child importers truly reveals the darkest aspects of man’s ability to rationalize the ugliest of acts. It’s high time we respect the humanity of all peoples by preserving families and allowing them the dignity to build their own strong societies without the intervention of self-interested parties. THAT would be the action of an enlightened, advanced, civil society.”

[1]Pirani, Salima. "Adoption is not the Answer." International Adoption Facts. November 2, 2006.

First posted But also can be found, here:

[1]"American would-be adopters, the Catholic Church, international adoption agencies and independent adoption facilitators applied pressure on the Haitian government in order to airlift the alleged orphans before anyone could confirm whether their parents or relatives are still alive -- At this writing, the first 500 or so alleged orphans were airlifted to the U.S. (according to the U.S. State Department)and 900 children were in process of being adopted from Haiti and placed in U.S. homes."

[1]Excerpted from Afrikan World News: Assata Shakur Forums. and commentary from

[1]Lacey, Marc. "Haiti Charges Americans With Child Abduction." The New York Times. The New York Times, 04 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. <>.

Bajak, Frank. "Orphan Rescue’ attempt hits nerve among Haitians" The Boston Globe, 01 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. <>.

Excerpted from Afrikan World News: Assata Shakur Forums. and commentary from at

Sundby, Alex. "Haiti: Americans Improperly Took Children." CBS News. CBS Interactive, 30 Jan. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. <>.

"Haiti PM says US missionaries knew they were doing wrong." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 02 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. <>.

Port-au-Prince, Nick Allen in. "Haiti earthquake: voodoo high priest claims aid monopolised by Christians." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 01 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. <>.

[1], The definition of orphan according to the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. The Immigration and Nationality Act provides a definition of an orphan for the purposes of immigration to the United States: "A child may be considered an orphan because of the death or disappearance of, abandonment or desertion by, or separation or loss from, both parents. The child of an unwed mother or surviving parent may be considered an orphan if that parent is unable to care for the child properly and has, in writing, irrevocably released the child for emigration and adoption. The child of an unwed mother may be considered an orphan, as long as the mother does not marry (which would result in the child having a stepfather) and as long as the child’s biological father has not legitimated the child. If the father legitimates the child or the mother marries, the mother is no longer considered a sole parent. The child of a surviving parent may also be an orphan if the surviving parent has not married since the death of the other parent (which would result in the child’s having a stepfather or stepmother)."

[1]Stewart, Kerry. "Is Voluntourism the New Colonialism?" ABC Network Australia. Monday, March 24, 2014.

[1]Australian Government response to the Senate Committee Inquiry Attorney-General's Department.

[1]"Adoption Lobby Alert: Counselling on how to give Informed Consent for Intercountry Adoption."

The new “Hague Adoption Convention” way to relinquish children. Instead of subsidiarity (adoption as a last resort), parents can directly [and naively] free their children for intercountry adoption. And no other help or options are offered."

[1]Akafate, Roman. Winning Life in America: by Achieving One Success at a Time. The Ethiopian Orphan Who Made It in America. Edited and formatted by Princeton Commercial Holdings. Washington State. 2011.

[1]Akafate pg. 61, 79, 83 – 84, 88


[1]Reader reviews on Goodreads.

[1]US Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs on Intercountry Adoption Statistics

[1]JCICS presented themselves as another advocacy group for children, but because of Against Child Trafficking's proficiency, it has become evident that it was simply another voice for the adoption industry.

[1]Against Child Trafficking. "JCICS, US Adoption Trade Organisation Closure Confirmed." Retrieved Online 7.15

[1]Hosseini, Bijan. "Ethiopia Bans Foreign Adoptions." CNN, Cable News Network,

3 Feb. 2018.

[1]Australian Human Rights Commission. "Bringing Them Home: The 'Stolen Children' Report (1997)

Marten, J.A.. Children and War, NYU Press, NY p.229.

Indigenous Australians make up about 2.6% of Australia's population.

[1]My research into the practice of adoption is inspired by the Australian Aboriginals. I first learned of this indigenous community at a Boeing Parapsychology Club meeting. A man spoke to the club about his time living within a tribe. He said this community believed they were so in harmony with the land and with each other, communication came in the form of thoughts more than anything else. I became immediately attracted to their natural way of life. Their philosophy reminded me greatly of Taoism, holistic medicine and natural remedies, such as homeopathy, aromatherapy, and acupressure closely related to utilizing natural elements at its rawest form to survive and thrive. Devastatingly, like the Native Americans, the Sacred Energy Life Force got interrupted, dishonored and disrespected by the civilized man which brought us to where we are today.

[1]Matheou, Demetrios. "The long walk home." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 01 Sept. 2002. <>.

[1]Matheou, Demetrios. "The Long Walk Home." The Daily Telegraph UK September 2002.

[1]Flaherty, Jordan. "Saviors" Believe That They Are Better Than the People They are "Saving." AK Press. Thursday, January 05, 2017.

 *Comments made by members on Social Media, including the Facebook Group: Adoption Truth and Transparency Worldwide Network

[1]Stephens, Tony. "Daughter dies with her story still incomplete". The Sydney Morning Herald. 15 January 2004. Retrieved 15 July 2007.

[1]The Australian Women's Register: An initiative of the National Foundation for Australian Women (NFAW) in conjunction with The University of Melbourne.

 *Doris Pilkington Garimara, a novelist, is dead at 76. New York Times. 21 April 2014

 *"Pot of gold at the end of the Rabbit-Proof Fence for Doris Pilkington Garimara AM.". Australia Council. Retrieved 29 May 2008.

 *Dumas, Daisy (11 April 2014). "Doris Pilkington Garimara, author of Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence, dead at 76". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 13 April 2014.

[1]Compiled by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Reconciliation and Social Justice Library

[1]Read, Peter (2006) [1st pub. 1982]. The Stolen Generations: The Removal of Aboriginal Children in New South Wales 1883 to 1969 (PDF). Surry Hills, N.S.W: New South Wales Department of Aboriginal Affairs. ISBN 0-646-46221-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 August 2006. "Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission: Bringing Them Home: Part 2: 4 Victoria". AustLII. 1997. Confidential Testimony 253

[1]Confidential Evidence 689


[1]The Stolen Generations "The Unfortunate Life of Bruce Trevorrow."

‘Stolen Generation Payout’ The Age, Australia 2 August 2007; ‘Test for Stolen Generations Payout’, The Australian, 28 February 2008

Gray, J, Trevorrow v. State of South Australia (No 5) [2007] SASC 285, Supreme Court of South Australia, Judgement of the Honorable Justice Gray, 1 August 2007, para 110. This information on the patient’s history sheet was given by Mr. and Mrs. Evans, para 815.

[1]Today, this is called rehoming and a nationwide underground epidemic in the adoptive parent community within the United States. posts articles on the crisis.

[1]Roberts, J. "Stolen Generations Pioneer Bruce Trevorrow Dies." The Australian, Online. June 21, 2008.




[1] Kevin Rudd apologizes on November 16, 2009, gave national apology in the Parliament to the Forgotten Australians 500,000 children


[1]Margaret pg. 75

[1]National Archives of Australia: Forced Adoptions History Project.


Prasanna, Sumithra."The Murkier Side of Adoption" January 27, 2017

Adoption Profiteering in the US alone:

D'Arcy, Claudia. "Finally! Accurate Data on Profits in Adoption." Musings of the Lame: Adoption Birthmothers: Building Bridges to Adoptions Truths. February 27, 2015. "For over a year we have been able to say with confidence that the adoption industry brought in 13 billion dollars in 2013 based on an IBIS World market research report." "New Facts on Revenue and Profits in Adoption: Adoption services by agencies and facilitators alone are supposed to bring in over 30 million dollars in profit in 2015... ." *Just in the United States and this does not include adoption placements made by adoption attorneys.


Adoption Scams Bilk Victims, Break Hearts. (2006, August 28). Retrieved from

Cooper, J. (2019, October 10). Politician charged in human trafficking adoption scheme. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Heisig, E. (2017, February 15). FBI raids Strongsville-based international adoption agency. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Kelly, D. (2019, January 11). FBI investigating Macomb County woman on suspicion of running unlicensed adoption agency, fraud. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Kim, G. (2015, November 06). International Adoption's Trafficking Problem. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Mercer, R. (n.d.). FBI Adoption. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Office of Public Affairs. (2019, September 05). Texas Woman Pleads Guilty to Conspiracy to Facilitate Adoptions From Uganda Through Bribery and Fraud. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Oregon Dept of. (n.d.). Non-Departmental Adoptions. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Reddit Discussion. (n.d.). R/PedoGate - IMPORTANT: Info regarding Cleveland Killer that no one is talking about. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Taylor/ABC7, S. (2017, February 15). Families stunned after FBI raids adoption agency. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Tracy Carloss, N. (2017, February 15). FBI searches debarred adoption agency. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Unknown. (1970, January 01). Connect the dots ...CPS... #PEDOGATE......On the grand scale of justice! Retrieved July 23, 2020, from


Section Title

Information is Power

Thirty-five pages of additional notes and resources, recommended videos, a book list, journal and newspaper articles, links to website resources, list of UN Conventions and Declarations; FBI sites on today's adoption trafficking, cases, and fraud, additional citations and sources.







An Adoptee's Nightmare: Domestic Adoptee from the US and Adoptionland contributor

Baby Sellers. August 17, 2013. Director: Nick Willing. Inspired by true events, the Lifetime Original Movie, Baby Sellers, exposes the shocking international criminal enterprise of infant trafficking. Stars Emmy winner Jennifer Finnigan and Emmy and Golden Globe winner Kirstie Alley.

Canada's Home Children

Canada: Catholic Nuns forced women to give up babies for adoption or told moms newborn was 'dead'

Does the State Ever Have a “Right” to Remove Children from a Home?

Fly Away Children Adopted from Ethiopia

The Orphan Trains. Produced and Directed by: Graham, Janet and Gray, Edward. Perf: Charles Loring Brace IV, Matt Carlson, Dan Desmond, Moira Driscoll, Anthony Fusco, Susan Gordon-Clark, Rachel Miner, Amber Scott. Web. 2013.

Stolen Babies (1993) Georgia Tann's adoption scheme

Stolen Child Presented by Hybrid. Inspired by True Story

Stolen Children | Residential School Survivors Speak Out Native American adults speak about their childhoods away from family.


Against Child Trafficking and Arun Dohle

Forgotten Australians and British Children Abused by Nuns On Australia, Britain and Commonwealth Nations: Search for "The Child Migration Scheme."

Norway's Stolen Children?

Oranges and Sunshine Oct. 8, 2010. Oranges and Sunshine tells the story of Margaret Humphreys, a social worker from Nottingham who uncovered one of the most significant social scandals of recent times: the deportation of thousands of children from the United Kingdom to Australia.

Philomena based on the 2009 investigative book by BBC correspondent Martin Sixsmith, and directed by Stephen Frears. Decades after an Irish-Catholic mother was forced into signing a contract that would not allow her any contact with her son, searches for her son sent away for adoption to the United States by church doctrine. Screenwriters: Steve Coogan and Jeff Pope.

Search a Child, Pay Cash: The Adoption Lobby

Slave Labour: Magdalene Laundries Disgraced Irish Catholic Women

This World - Spain's Stolen Babies


Cambodian Adoption Scandal

(the Cambodian Adoption Scandal, involving Laury Galindo- the facilitator which Angelina Jolie used)

China's Stolen Children As many as 70,000 children snatched off the streets and sold by organized crime.

Living with Dead Hearts Children reported missing in China search

"Recovering What Was Left behind" (Three contributors from The "Unknown" Culture Club: Korean Adoptees Then and Now. )

Stolen and Sold Foreign Correspondent ABC Adopted from India &

Stolen Children, Stolen Lives, Part 1 on Palestinian Children

The Mystery of the Missing Yemenite Children: A short report

The Traffickers


Bean, Philip, and Melville, Joy. Lost Children of the Empire: The Untold Story of Britain's Child Migrants. London: Unwin Hyman Limited, 1989.

Berthrong, E.N. Ph.D. What Would Confucius Do? Wisdom and Advice on Achieving Success and Getting Along with Others. New York: Marlowe & Company, An Imprint of Avalon Publishing Group, 2005.

Bockian, Neil R.; Jongsma, Arthur E., Jr. The Personality Disorders: Treatment Planner. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001. Harmony Books, 2002.

Bowker, John. World Religions: The Great Faiths Explored and Explained. New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 1997.

Bradshaw, John. Bradshaw on: The Family: A Revolutionary Way of Self Discovery. Deerfield Beach, FL.: Health Communications Inc.,1988.

Bradshaw, John. Reclaiming Virtue. New York: Bantam Books, 2009.

Carangelo, Lori. Chosen Children 2016: People as Commodities in American's Failed Multi-Billion Dollar Foster Care, Adoption and Prison Industries. Access Press, 2016.

Coffey, Marilyn June. Mail-Order Kid: An Orphan Train Rider's Story, Nebraska: "out West" Press, 2001.

Colapinto, John. As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York: HarperCollins/Publishers 2000.

DelBalzo, Jessica. Unlearning Adoption: A Guide to Family Preservation and Protection. Charleston, SC: Book Surge, 2007.

Dodds, Peter. Outer Search Inner Journey: An Orphan and Adoptee’s Quest. Puyallup, WA: Aphrodite Publishing Company, 1997.

Dreher, Diane. The Tao of Inner Peace. New York: First HarperPerennial, 1990.

Dusky, Lorraine. Birthmark. New York. M.Evans & Co., 1979.

Dusky, Lorraine. Hole in my Heart. New York. Leto Media. 2015.

Dusky, Lorraine. Still Unequal: The Shameful Truth About Women and Justice in America. New York: Crown Publishers Inc., 1996.

Forward, Susan. Toxic Parents: Overcoming Their Hurtful Legacy and Reclaiming Your Life. New York: Bantam Books, 1989.

Fasulo, Linda. An Insider's Guide to the UN. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2003.

Fessler, Ann H. The Girls Who Went Away: The Hidden History of Women Who Surrendered Children for Adoption in the Decades Before Roe v. Wade. New York: Penguin Books, 2006.

Frankl, Viktor, E. Man’s Search for Meaning, Revised and Updated. New York: Pocket Books a division of Simon & Schuster, 1959, 1962, 1984.

Gibbs, Nancy & Duffy, Michael. The Preacher and the Presidents: Billy Graham in the White House. New York: Center Street, 2007.

Goffman, Erving. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc. 1963

Harrop, Elizabeth Willmott. "Policy Makers' Attention Needed to Counter Intercountry Adoption." Think Africa Press. 2012. Online.

Holt, Bertha. Bring My Sons From Afar: The Unfolding of Harry Holt's Dream. Eugene: Holt International Children's Services, 1986.

Holt, Mrs. Harry, as told to David Wisner. The Seed from the East. Los Angeles: Oxford Press, 1956.

To My Beloved Baby: Writings of Birth Mothers. Seoul, S. Korea: Holt Children’s Services, Inc. 2005

Holt Children's Services, Inc. We Believe in Miracles. Seoul: Holt Children's Services, Inc., 2005.

Holt International Children's Services Press Release Tuesday, September 16th, 2003.

Hornby, Elfi. So, This is America! Federal Way, WA: Elfi Hornby, 2006.

Humphreys, Margaret. Empty Cradles: One Woman's Fight to Uncover Britain's Most Shameful Secret. London: Transworld Publishers LTD, 1994.

Joyce, Kathryn. The Child Catchers: Rescue, Trafficking and the New Gospel of Adoption. New York. PublicAffairs 2013

Ikeda, Daisaku. Learning from the Gosho: The Eternal Teachings of Nichiren Daishonin. World Tribune Press, 1997.

By the Editorial Staff of LIFE. The World’s Great Religion. New York: Time, Inc., 1958.

Kim, Dr. David Hyunbok. Who Will Answer... Eugene, Ore: Holt International, 2006.

Korean American Historical Society. Han in the Upper Left: A Brief History of Korean Americans in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: Chin Music Press, 2015.

Lauck, Jennifer. Blackbird: A Childhood Lost and Found. New York: Pocket Books, 2000.

Lee, Joong Keum Ph.D., Editor in Chief. Korean War 1950.6.25 – 1953.7.27 Seoul: Woojung Books, 1015.

Maaga, Mary McCormick. Hearing the Voices of Jonestown: Putting a Human Face on an American Tragedy. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press,1998.

McEnor, Rohan. Rebecca's Law: Sojourn of a Stolen Father. Gosford, Australia: Fuzzcapp Publishing, 1999.

McGreal, Ian P., Editor. Great Thinkers of the Eastern World. New York: Harper Collins Publisher, 1995.

Miller, Alice. Thou Shalt Not Be Aware: Society's Betrayal of the Child. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1981.

Morrow, Dorothy. The Gift of Roots. (Paraphrase first portion)

Musser, Sandra Kay. I Would Have Searched Forever: A Birthmother's Search For The Child She Surrendered. Cape Coral: Adoption Awareness Press, 1979.

Myung Ja, Janine, and Moon Ja, Jenette. The "Unknown" Culture Club: Korean Adoptees, Then and Now. Seattle: Against Child Trafficking USA, 2015.

Myung Ja, Janine, Vance, Allen L. and Potter, Michael Allen. Adoptionland: From Orphans to Activists, Seattle: Against Child Trafficking USA, 2014.

Notovitch, Nicolas. The Unknown Life of Christ: Infinite Knowledge of The Buddha. Stepney, South Australia: Axiom Publishing, 2007.

O' Conner, Stephen. Orphan Trains: The Story of Charles Loring Brace and the Children He Saved and Failed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Books, 2001.

Palmer, John D. The Dance of Identities: Korean Adoptees and their Journey Toward Empowerment. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2011.

Pilkington, Doris. Rabbit Proof Fence: The True Story of One of the Greatest Escapes of All Time. Australia: Queensland Press, 1996.

Post, Roelie. For Export Only: The 'Untold' Story of the Romanian Orphans. Netherlands: Hoekstra, St. Annaparochie, 2007.

Potter, Michael Allen. The Last Invisible Continent: Essays on Adoption and Identity. New York. Kartografisk Utgaver; 2nd edition. 2014.

Raymond, Barbara Bisantz. The Baby Thief: The Untold Story of Georgia Tann, the Baby Seller Who Corrupted Adoption. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, 2007.

Reiterman, Tim with Jacobs, John. Raven: The Untold Story of Rev. Jim Jones and His People. New York: Penguin Group, 1982.

Riben, Mirah. The Stork Market: America's Multi-Billion Dollar Unregulated Adoption Industry. Dayton, NJ: Advocate Publications, 2007.

Robinson, Evelyn. Adoption Separation, Then and Now. South Australia: Clova Publications, 2010.

Scheeres, Julia. A Thousand Lives: The Untold Story of Hope, Deception, and Survival at Jonestown. New York: Free Press, 2011.

Schein, Elyse and Bernstein, Paula. Identical Strangers: A Memoir of Twins Separated and Reunited. New York: Random House, 2007.

Sheler, Jeffrey L. Believers: A Journey into Evangelical America. New York. Penguin Group. 2006.

Stoen, Timothy Oliver. Marked for Death: My War with Jim Jones the Devil of Jonestown. North Charleston, South Carolina. Createspace 2015.

Tim Stoen's Testimony: Tim Stoen speaker for Men's Breakfast. Youtube. Uploaded by Rense Miller February 20, 2016.

Jonestown Massacre ' Stephan Jones. Stephan Jones, the 19-year-old son at the time of Reverend Jim Jones, talks about religion, drug addiction, and even wanting to murder his father. Uploaded by "Strombo." Uploaded 11, 2008.

Tzu, Lao (Introduction and Notes by Ong, Yi-Ping). Tao Te Ching. New York, NY: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2005.

Translated by Thurman, Robert A.F.. The Tibetan Book of the Dead. New York: Quality Paperback Book Club, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, 1994

Tolle, Eckhart. The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment. Novato California: New World Library, 1999.

Tolle, Eckhart. The New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose. New York. Penguin: Reprint edition. 2008.

Vance, Janine. The Search For Mother Missing: A Peek Inside International Adoption. Seattle: Missing Families Inc., 2007.

Wiesel, Elie. Night. New York: Hill and Wang, 1972, 1985.

Zhao, Xiaolan C.M.D. Ancient Healing for Modern Women: Traditional Chinese Medicine for All Phases of a Woman’s Life. New York: Walker & Company


Against Child Trafficking, “Fruits of Ethiopia.” Intercountry Adoption: The Rights of the Child, or the “Harvesting” of Children?, commissioned by Wereldkinderen. October 2009

Americans for Open Records "We believe all American citizens have the "right to know" what's in our records and to access and obtain what's ours and to correct any misinformation. AmFOR supports public access to such records and believes that denying public access threatens not only our personal security but also National Security and our Democracy."

Anderson, Rick. "His Past Life: An Old Molestation Allegation is Renewed Against the Former Head of Seattle's Children's Home." Seattle Weekly, 31 March 2004. Web. 4 Mar. 2008. <>

Asingh. "Asia's Orphanage Industry Worth Millions." Asian Pacific Post, 07 July 2015. Web. 15 Sept. 2015. <>Baker, Mark. "Babies for Sale: No Warranty." The Sydney Morning Herald. 16, Dec. 2003. Web: 16, Nov. 2006.

Bose, Soumittra S. "Dutch Woman Finds Biological Mom in Bhandara After 27 Years." The Times of India, 8 Sept. 2015. Web. 11 Sept. 2015. <>.

Carriere, Jeannine. "Promising Practice for Maintaining Identities in First Nation Adoption." First Peoples Child and Family Review. Volume 3, Number 1, 2007. pp. 46-64

Custer, Charles. "Kidnapped and Sold: Inside the Dark World of Child Trafficking in China." The Atlantic, 25 July 2013. Web. 6 Oct. 2015. <>

Dewan, Shaila K. "Bertha Holt, 96, a Leader in International Adoptions." The New York Times. August 2, 2000.

Dohle, Arun. "Inside Story of an Adoption Scandal." Samford University Cumberland Law Review – Volume 39:1. 13, November 2008. Web <>

Edmunds, Michelle. "Adopted Canadians Face Many Hurdles." Canadian Democratic Movement. 15, Aug. 2005. Web. 8 Nov. 2005. <>

Graff, E. J. "The Orphan Trade: A Look at Families Affected by Corrupt International Adoptions." Slate. 8, May 2009. Web. 14, Apr. 2009. <, Vanessa. "Korean-born in U.S. Return to a Home They Never Knew; Many Locate Lost Families." Chronicle. 11, Sept. 2005. Web. 12, Sept. 2005.

"Independent Panel of Family Law Experts of EU Member States: Summary of Opinion on the Matter of Adoptions." European Commission, Brussels. 19 May, 2004.

Lacey, Marc and Urbina, Ian. New York Times, Free Republic. 12, Feb. 2010. Web. "Detained Americans' Adviser Suspected of Human Trafficking." The New York Times. <>

Maben, Scott. "Holt Agency President Quits." The Register-Guard, 28 April 2004. Web. 6 June 2005. <>

National Sorry Day Committee. "Welcome to the National Sorry Day Committee." 24, May. 2015. Web.

Post, Roelie. "The Perverse Effects of the Hague Adoption Convention." Against Child Trafficking. 2008. Web: 2011.

Seattle Times Staff. "Woman Gets 16 Years for Raping Daughter From China." Seattle Times. 12, Mar. 2010. Web. 15, Mar. 2010. <>

Special Broadcasting System Australia (SBS) Timeline: Stolen Generations. 26, Feb 2015.

Tyre, Peg. "We Gave Him Up to Save His Life." New York Magazine. Web. 4, Jan. 2007.

Warren, Andrea. "The Orphan Train." The Washington Post Company. 1998. Web: 18, July. 2015.

Gillenson, Lewis W. Billy Graham and Seven Who Were Saved. New York: Trident Press, 1967.

Wilkerson, David. The Vision: A Terrifying Prophecy of Doomsday That is Starting to Happen Now. New York: Pyramid Books, 1974.

Ridenour, Fritz. How to be a Christian in an UnChristian World. Glendale, CA: G/L Publications, 1971.

Schonfield, Hugh J. Dr. The Passover Plot: New Light on the History of Jesus. New York: Bantam Book, 1965.

Scroggie, W. Graham. Is the Bible the Word of God. Chicago: Moody Press, 1922.

Lasor, William Sanford. Men Who Knew Christ: Great Personalities of the New Testament. Glendale, CA: G/L Publications, 1971.

Editor: Ridenour, Fritz. Who Says God Created… Glendale, CA: G/L Publications, 1971.

Lindsey, Hal. There’s a New World Coming. New York: Bantam Books, 1973.

Anderson, Rick. "A Broke Home: A Legacy Children's Charity is in the Red, and it's not Clear How it Spent $2.3 million." Seattle Weekly News, Oct 9, 2006.

AcPf. Africa: The New Frontier for Intercountry Adoption. Addis Ababa: The African Child Policy Forum, 2012.

Askren, H.A., and K.C..Bloom "Post-Adoptive Reactions of the Relinquishing Mother: A Review." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological and Neonatal Nursing 28, no. 4 (1999)

Dambach, Mia, and Christina Baglietto. Haiti: 'Expediting' Intercountry Adoptions in the Aftermath of a Natural Disaster, Preventing Future Harm. Geneva: International Social Service, 2010.

Documentary: Fly Away Children. Film Directed by Andrew Geoghegan. Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2009.

Fruits of Ethiopia: Intercountry Adoption: The Rights of the Child or the 'Harvesting' of Children. Brussels, Belgium: Against Child Trafficking. 2011.

"The Baby Business." Democracy Journal.

"Graff, E. J. "Anatomy of an Adoption Crisis." Foreign Policy, September 12, 2010.

Hubinette, Tobias. Comforting an Orphaned Nation: Representations of International Adoption and Adopted Koreans in Korean Popular Culture. Seoul: Jimoondang, 2006.

Selman, Peter. 'Global Trends in Intercountry Adoption: 2004 – 2010.' Newcastle University, England UK 2016.

Selman, Peter. ‘Trends in Intercountry Adoption: Analysis of Data from 20 Receiving Countries, 1998–2004’, Journal of Population Research, vol. 23, no. 2 (2006)

Siegal Rotabi, Karen. "From Guatemala to Ethiopia: Shifts in Intercountry Adoption Leaves Ethiopia Vulnerable for Child Sales and Other Unethical Practices." SW & S News Magazine (2010).

Siegal, Erin, Finding Fernanda: Two Mothers, One Child, and a Cross-Border Search for Truth. Oakland, CA: Cathexis Press, 2011.

Solinger, Rickie. Wake Up Little Susie: Single Pregnancy and Race before Roe v. Wade. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Wilson-Buterbaugh, Karen. "Research | Baby Scoop Era Research Initiative." Baby Scoop Era Research Initiative.

Balcom, Karen. The Traffic in Babies: Cross Border Adoption and Baby-Selling between The United States and Canada, 1930 -1972. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 2011.

Lyslo, Arnold. “A Few Impressions on Meeting the Harry Holt Plane, the “Flying Tiger,” Which Arrived in Portland, Oregon, December 27, 1958,” pp. 1-2, 4-5, International Social Service, American Branch Papers, Box 10, Folder: “Children—Independent Adoption Schemes, Holt, Harry, vol. II 1958-1959,” Social Welfare History Archives, University of Minnesota.

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